مجید حیدری

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   Faculty of judgment : thinking the particular under the universal

                        

                             Subsumes particulars under concepts or universals  Determining:

   Reflecting:     Finding the universal for the given particular

                                                                                                         Nature

Faculty                     Determining                                   Beauty

Of           …roles…                            Aesthetic                                   Art

Judgment                 Reflecting                                       Sublime

                                                           Teleological

First Moment

Judgment

   Of       ….based….         feeling           pleasure           disinterested ( not have )

Beauty

Cognitive judgment …. based….           perception

Feeling

Objective sensation = the sensation of a thing’s color

Perception = the judgment that a thing is green

Judgment of the Agreeable           saying simply that one likes sth or finds it pleasing

Judgments of the Good                 moral goodness of sth, & its goodness for particular

                                                      non-moral ends

Second Moment

Cognitive judgment                                       universal with concept

Moral judgment                                                 universal with concept

Judgment of beauty                                      universal but no concept

Judgment of the agreeable                                 not universal, interested

Judgment of beauty                                         universal, disinterested

Third Moment

Judgment of the Good………. have purpose or end…..because have concept

Judgment of beauty……….have no purpose or end….because have not concept

Judgments of beauty…………..have representation of purposiveness which doesn’t

                                                  ascribe of an end = merely formal purposiveness

Formal purposiveness……….is in the object itself and the activity of imagination and

                                               understanding

Fourth Moment

Judgment of beauty…………..involve reference to the idea of necessity = people ought

                                                 to agree with me on that = normative =

                                                 though necessity is not on the base of concept

Free & Adherent Beauty

Judgments of beauty can fail to be pure in two ways: (two kinds of impurity)

  1. influenced by the object’s sensory or emotional appeal                               Free
  2. contingent on a certain concept’s applying to the object

                                                                                                                                 Adherent

Artists activity Paradox

  • is rule governed, since every art presupposes rule
  • has no rules which can be specified

solution of the paradox:     GENIUS ( natural capacity to produce beautiful objects)

Aesthetic ideas: representation of the imagination that occasions much thinking

Rational ideas: representation which can not be exemplified in experience or by means

                       of imagination

Aesthetic ideas’ role: mediating between rational ideas and imagination

(Aesthetic ideas seek to approximate to an exhibition of rational ideas)

Sublime

A feeling of the superiority of our own power of reason, as a super sensible faculty, over nature

The feeling associated with the sublime is a feeling of pleasure in the superiority of our reason over nature, but it also involves displeasure

  • mathematically sublime
  • dynamically sublime

In mathematically sublime: displeasure comes from the awareness of the inadequacy of

                                             our imagination

In dynamic sublime: displeasure comes from the awareness of our physical

                                 powerlessness in the face of nature’s might

Sublime and Beauty differences:

  1. contrapurposive, purposive
  2. universal validity of the conditions of cognition, universal validity of moral feeling
  3. imagination and reason, imagination and understanding

Aesthetics and Morality

 

  • Aesthetic judgment plays a role in grounding the possibility of morality for human beings.

 

                                                       Judgment

Freedom                                                                                                           Nature

                                         Mediates this transition because

                                         Of “nature purposiveness

Connections between morality and aesthetics:

  1. aesthetic experience severs as propadeutic for morality
  2. universality of the sublime rests on an appeal to moral feeling
  3. beauty serves as the symbol of morality
  4. beauty gives sensible forms to morality

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